Dunham, David Elson

DUNHAM, David Elson (1840-1883) was born on 8 August 1840 at Hampstead Parish, Queen's County, New Brunswick, and trained as a carpenter in nearby Woodstock. He moved to Saint John in 1863 and continued to work in the building trades, but appears to have not had any formal education or training in architecture. By 1870 he had begun to advertise his services as an architect, offering '...designs and plans for all classes of public and private buildings and landscape gardening' (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 7 May 1870, 3, advert.). During the next decade he was remarkably prolific, and apparently financially successful. He was one of earliest Maritime architects to aggressively promote his work through the printed media of newspapers and commercial directories. In 1873 he boasted of having '... on hand over $200,000 worth of work' and stated that his approach to architectural design was based on 'beauty, convenience, strength and economy' (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 23 Dec. 1873, 1, advert.). A lengthy editorial endorsement of this young architect , appearing on the same page of that paper, praised Dunham as a capable provincial designer who, unlike other trained architects '..had not enjoyed the advantage of European study or travel' thus turning his lack of professional experience into a positive attribute. In 1875 Dunham inserted a full page advertisement in an early business directory called Saint John and Its Business, which included extensive lists of his commissions for brick buildings and wood buildings that had already been built to his designs in Saint John, and in neighbouring Portland and Carleton. This article included important biographical details of his background, his experience, and furnished details on the precise location of each project, the name of the client, and the cost of each building. Many of his designs were executed in the fashionable Second Empire style, yet most are orthodox products of their time, and lack the innovative refinements of scholarship which many leading architects in Montreal and Toronto brought to their own work. The Great Fire in Saint John in June 1877 must have been a depressing event for Dunham, as he witnessed the destruction of most of his buildings constructed between 1870 and 1877, but undeterred, he saw this as another business opportunity, and quickly formed a partnership in July 1877 with William P. Clarke, and collaborated with him until February 1878 when the partnership was dissolved. Dunham died in Saint John on 26 October 1883 at the age of 43 years, and was buried at Fernhill Cemetery in that city (obit Saint John Globe, 26 Oct. 1883, 2; Saint John Daily Sun, 26 Oct. 1883, 3; biog. and list of works, Saint John and Its Business, 1875, 166; biog. In Gary Hughes, Music of the Eye: Architectural Drawings of Canada's First City 1822-1914, 1992, 55-60, illus.). The Provincial Archives of New Brunswick holds a collection of drawings and account books prepared by Dunham in the period from 1877 to 1883 (PANB, Dunham Coll., MC 167). The editor is indebted to Margaret Dunham Vanderploeg of Toronto, Ont. for kindly providing information about the career and work of her grandfather.

D.E. DUNHAM

(works in Saint John unless noted)

CARLETON, Masonic Hall, 1870 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 7 April 1870, 3)
PORTLAND, residence for Daniel J. Purdy, Main Street, 1870 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 7 April 1870, 3)
CALVIN CHURCH (now Shaare Zedek Synagogue), Carleton Street at Wellington Row, 1871-72 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 18 May 1871, 3, t.c.; 6 Aug. 1872, 1 & 2, descrip.; Saint John Daily News, 3 Aug. 1872, 3, descrip.)
FAIRALL & SMITH, Prince William Street, new facade and extensive alterations to commercial building, 1872 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 22 April 1872, 3, descrip.)
SYDNEY STREET, near King Square, store for Bernard McCrossin, 1872 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 29 May 1872, 3, descrip.)
SAINT JOHN RIVER, 'at the foot of Long Island', hotel for J.S. Vanwart, 1872 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 29 May 1872, 3, descrip.)
EXMOUTH STREET WESELYAN CHURCH, addition and extensive alterations, 1872 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 31 May 1872, 2, descrip.)
CONTINENTAL HOTEL, King Square, for G. R. Price, 1872-73 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 31 May 1872, 2, descrip.; Saint John Daily News [Saint John], 30 April 1873, 3, descrip.)
PORTLAND, residence for John Chesley, Suspension Bridge Road, 1872 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 7 June 1872, 2; 26 April 1873, 3, descrip.)
CARLETON, Assembly Hall for Rev. Edmund J. Dunphy, 1872 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 7 June 1872, 2, descrip.)
BRITTAIN STREET, at Germain Street, residence for James Miller, 1872-73 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 7 June 1872, 2, descrip.; 26 April 1873, 3, descrip.)
ELLIOTT ROW, residence for William W. Turnbull, 1872 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 23 July 1872, 3, descrip.)
CRAWFORD BLOCK, King Square, commercial block for John Crawford, 1872 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 21 Sept. 1872, 3, descrip.)
WATER STREET, backing on Ward Street, commercial block for William W. Turnbull, 1872-73 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 21 Sept. 1872, 3, descrip.; 5 March 1873, 2, descrip.)
PITT STREET, at Orange Street, a terrace of 4 pairs of houses for the Saint John Building Society, 1873 (Saint John Daily News, 26 Feb. 1893, 3, descript.)
CONTINENTAL HOTEL, King's Square, for B. Price, to be operated by Mr. Sibley, 1873 (Saint John Daily News, 30 April 1873, 3, descript.)
REED'S MILLS, cottage for J. Calkin, 1873 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 12 May 1873, 2, t.c.; Daily News [Saint John], 28 Feb. 1874, 3, descrip.)
CHATHAM, N.B., residence for F.J. Betson, 1873 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 24 May 1873, 3, descrip.)
GRAND FALLS, N.B., Presbyterian Church, 1873 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 19 June 1873, 3, descrip.)
(with Hopkins & Wily) MARITIME BANK, Market Square, 1873-74 (Daily Morning News [Saint John], 26 Aug. 1873, 2, t.c. and descrip.; 27 April 1874, 2, descrip.)
ALMS HOUSE, major extension, 1873-74 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 11 Nov. 1873, 3, descrip.)
WELSFORD, N.B., parsonage for the church, 1873 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 26 Nov. 1873, 2, t.c.)
GERMAIN STREET, commercial block for James J. Kaye, 1873 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 19 Dec. 1873, 3, descrip.)
QUEEN SQUARE, mansion for Frank Tufts, 1874; burned 1877 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 13 Feb. 1874, 3, descrip.)
PORTLAND, residence for Thomas P. Trueman, Wright Street at Stanley Street, 1874 (Daily News [Saint John] 13 April 1874, 2)
ORANGE TERRACE, Pitt Street at Orange Street, a row of eight houses including a residence for the architect, 1874 (Daily News [Saint John], 20 April 1874, 2, t.c.)
FAIRVILLE, N.B., Methodist Church, addition and extensive renovations, 1874 (Daily News [Saint John], 21 Oct. 1874, 3)
PORTLAND, St. Luke's Anglican Church, Main Street, 1875; interior remodelled by Charles O. Wickenden in 1879 (L. Stevens, Review of the First Half Century of St. Luke's Church, Portland, 1889, 92)
IMMACULATE CONCEPTION ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL, Waterloo Street, wooden case for the new organ imported from Liverpool, 1876 (Daily News [Saint John], 1 May 1876, 3; 2 June 1876, 3, descrip.)

DUNHAM & CLARKE

THE COMMERCIAL BLOCK, King Street at Canterbury Street, a block of eight stores for Daniel J. McLaughlin, Stephen Whittaker, James E. Whittaker and S.K. Foster, 1877-78 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 20 Aug. 1877, 3, descrip.; Daily News [Saint John], 26 Nov. 1877, 3)
MECKLENBURG STREET, residence for Henry Vaughan, 1877 (Saint John Daily Telegraph, 13 Aug. 1877, 2, t.c.)
PRINCESS STREET, at Pitt Street, residence for Charles Patten, 1877 (Saint John Globe, 29 Aug. 1877, 3, t.c.)
MILL STREET, commercial block for Lawrence McGill, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 20 Nov. 1877, 3)
UNION STREET, at Smyth Street, commercial block for John McSweeney, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 21 Nov. 1877, 3)
DOCK STREET, commercial block from John O'Gorman, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 21 Nov. 1877, 3)
PRINCE WILLIAM STREET, commercial block for Marshall Reed, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 29 Nov. 1877, 3)
CANTERBURY STREET, at Church Street, commercial block for Archibald G. Bowes, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 30 Nov.1877, 3)
CANTERBURY STREET, at Church Street, commercial block for Edward J. Maher, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 30 Nov.1877, 3)
GERMAIN STREET, commercial block for Stephen K. Foster, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 1 Dec. 1877, 3)
GERMAIN STREET, at Princess Street, commercial block for Daniel J. McLaughlin, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 1 Dec. 1877, 3)
GERMAIN STREET, commercial block for John Mullin, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 1 Dec. 1877, 3)
CHARLOTTE STREET, residence for Dr. Lawrence MacLaren, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 3 Dec. 1877, 3)
ST. JAMES STREET, at Sydney Street, store and residence for Thomas Ritchie, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 4 Dec. 1877, 2)
SYDNEY STREET, residence for Dr. Boyle Travers, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 5 Dec. 1877, 3)
WENTWORTH STREET, residence for Cornelius Sparrow, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 8 Dec. 1877, 3)
WENTWORTH STREET, residence for Mr. Lockhart, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 8 Dec. 1877, 3)
WENTWORTH STREET, at Orange Street, residence for Capt. Prichard, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 8 Dec. 1877, 3)
LEINSTER STREET, pair of houses for Mrs. Sarah H. Fisher and William H. Hayward, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 11 Dec. 1877, 2)
PRINCESS STREET, at Carmarthen Street, commercial block for Mrs. Lockhart, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 13 Dec. 1877, 3)
QUEEN STREET, residence for Hugh S. Normansell, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 18 Dec. 1877, 3)
QUEEN SQUARE, residence for Frank Tufts, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 18 Dec. 1877, 3)
MECKLENBURG STREET, residence for Henry Vaughan, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 19 Dec. 1877, 3)
MECKLENBURG STREET, residence for Frank Gallagher, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 19 Dec. 1877, 3)
SAINT JOHN GLOBE BUILDING, Prince William Street, for John V. Ellis, 1877 (American Architect & Building News [Boston], iii, 26 Jan. 1878, 33, descrip.)
HORN BUILDING, Prince William Street, 1878 (Daily News [Saint John], 8 Nov. 1878, 3; G. Hughes, Music of the Eye, 1991, 65-6, illus.; dwgs. at PANB, Mott Coll. 551)

D.E. DUNHAM

MONCTON, N.B., Methodist Church, Church Street, 1877 (Daily News [Saint John], 24 Oct. 1877, 3, descrip.)
PRINCE WILLIAM STREET, at Church Street, commercial block for Gilbert R. Pugsley, 1878 (Daily News [Saint John], 7 May 1878, 3)
SYDNEY STREET, residence for Dr. Boyle Travers, 1878 (Morning Freeman [Saint John], 22 June 1878, 3)
PRINCESS STREET, at Germain Street, commercial block for Daniel J. McLaughlin, 1878 (Daily News [Saint John], 20 Nov. 1878, 3, descrip.; dwgs. at PANB, Mott Coll., 1575)
PRINCESS STREET, at Sydney Street, residence for the architect, 1878 (Daily News [Saint John], 27 Nov. 1878, 3, descrip.)
REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Peel Street, basement built 1878; church completed 1882 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 13 Nov. 1882, 3, descrip.)
LOWER COVE MISSION METHODIST CHURCH, St. James Street at Carmarthen Street, 1878; opened 1886 (American Architect & Building News [Boston], iv, 28 Sept. 1878, 111, descrip.; Saint John Daily Telegraph, 5 Oct. 1878, 2, descrip.; Daily Sun [Saint John], 12 June 1886, 5, descript.; dwgs. at PANB, Mott Coll. 369; G. Hughes, Music of the Eye, 1991, 58-60, illus.)
KING STREET ARCH, erected for the tour of the Marquis of Lorne and Princess Louise, 1879 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 4 Aug. 1879, 2)
PORTLAND, Ladies Christian Temperance Union Hall, Main Street, 1880 (Daily News [Saint John], 5 July 1880, 3, descrip.)
PROVINCIAL EXHIBITION BUILDING, Barrack Grounds, 1880 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 26 May 1880, 2, t.c.; 22 June 1880, 3, descrip.; 28 Aug. 1880, 3, illus.; 28 Sept. 1880, 2, descript.; G. Hughes, Music of the Eye, 1991, 85-7, illus.)
HAMPTON, N.B., Methodist Church, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 15 Jan. 1881, 3, t.c.; dwg. in PANB, Mott Coll. 576)
FAIRVILLE, N.B., Baptist Church, Mosquito Cove Road, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 25 May 1881, 3; Saint John Daily Telegraph, 6 April 1881, 3, descrip.)
PRINCESS STREET, commercial block for James Lee, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 2 Aug. 1881, 3, descrip.)
GERMAIN STREET, at Horsfield Street, three cottages for W. Tremaine Gard, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 2 Aug. 1881, 3)
ST. GEORGE, N.B., cottage for Dr. Dick, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 2 Aug. 1881, 3, descrip.)
CHIPMAN, N.B., residence for G.G. King, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 2 Aug. 1881, 3, descrip.)
DORCHESTER, N.B., cottage for H.R. Emerson, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 2 Aug. 1881, 3, descrip.)
HAMPTON, N.B., store and residence for T.G. Barnes, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 2 Aug. 1881, 3, descrip.)
WOODSTOCK, N.B., residence for Dr. Connell, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 2 Aug. 1881, 3, descrip.)
RIMOUSKI, QUE., factory for Marcus Kollach, 1881 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 31 Aug. 1881, 3)
MARINE HOSPITAL, Wentworth Street at St. James Street, 1882-84; completed by Harvey H. Mott (Daily Sun [Saint John], 31 Dec. 1881, 1, descrip.; Canada, Sessional Papers, No. 10, 1883, Appendix 2, 154, descrip.; G. Hughes, Music of the Eye, 1991, 88-90, illus.; dwgs. at PANB, Mott Coll. 554)
FREDERICTON, N.B., Baptist Church, York Street at Brunswick Street, 1882-83 (New Brunswick Reporter [Fredericton], 10 May 1882, 3, descrip.; 10 Nov. 1883, 3, descrip.; G. Davis, History of Brunswick Street United Baptist Church, 1964, 13)
FREDERICTON, N.B., residence for Charles H.B. Fisher, Brunswick Street at Church Street, 1882 (New Brunswick Reporter [Fredericton], 21 June 1882, 3)
WOODSTOCK, N.B., Baptist Church, 1882 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 16 Sept. 1882, 5)
MONCTON, N.B., commercial block for George Fair, Main Street at Lutz Street, 1882 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 16 Sept. 1882, 5)
MONCTON, N.B., row of five tenement houses for A.J. Babang, 1882 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 16 Sept. 1882, 5)
SACKVILLE, N.B., residence for Stephen Ayre, 1882 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 16 Sept. 1882, 5)
FREDERICTON, N.B., Military School Building, 1883 (Daily Sun [Saint John], 26 Sept. 1883, 3)
SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, Broad Street, 1883-84; completed by G. Ernest Fairweather in 1884 (dwgs. at NBPA, Mott Coll. 325, 443)